|Cf. Vol. I, pp.
See also the
reference, in the "General Argument" of the Valladolid redaction, to her being
Prioress of St. Joseph's when the book was written. Presumably the original draft is
E.g., at places where a chapter
ends in E. but not in V.
One special case of this class is
the suppression in V. of one out of two or three almost but not quite synonymous
adjectives referring to the same noun.
With few exceptions, the footnotes
to the Way of perfection are the translators. Square brackets are therefore not
used to distinguish them from those of P. Silverio, as elsewhere. Ordinary brackets, in
the footnote translations, are placed round words inserted to complete the sense.
This title, in St. Teresa's hand,
appears on the first page of the Valladolid autograph (V.) which, as we have said in the
Introduction, is the basis of the text here used. The Escorial autograph (E.) has the
words "Treatise of the Way of Perfection" in an unknown hand, followed by the
Prologue, in St. Teresa's. The Toledo copy (T.) begins with the Protestation.
These lines, also in St. Teresa's
hand, follow the title in the Valladolid autograph. P. Bez added, in his own
writing, the words: "I have seen this book and my opinion of it is written at the end
and signed with my name." Cf. ch. 42, below.
This Protestation, taken from T.,
was dictated by St. Teresa for the edition of the Way of perfection published at
vora in 1583 by D. Teutonio de Braganza.
The words "Fray Domingo
Baes" are crossed out, probably by P. Bez himself. T. has:
"from the Father Master Fray Domingo Bez, Professor at Salamanca."
Bez was appointed to a Chair at Salamanca University in 1577.
The pronoun (quien) in the
Spanish is singular, but in the sixteenth century it could have plural force and the
context would favour this. A manuscript note in V., however (not by P. Bez, as
the Paris Carmelites -- Oeuvres, V, 30 -- suggest), evidently takes the reference
to be to St. Gregory, for it says: "And he wrote something on Job, and the Morals,
importuned by servants of God, and trusting in their prayers, as he himself says."
French Protestantism which had
been repressed during the reigns of Francis I and Henry II, increased after the latter's
death in 1559, and was still doing so at the time of the foundation of St. Joseph's.
Lit.: "and bad."
All se lo hayan.
"And serve them right!" would, in most contexts, be a more exact rendering of
this colloquial phrase, but there is no suspicion of Schadenfreude here.
An apparent reference to St. Mark
In the Spanish the subject is in
the singular: P. Bez inserted "the house", but crossed this out
St. Teresa liked to have
hermitages in the grounds of her convents to give the nuns opportunity for solitude.
Lit.: "making this
corner." The reference is to St. Joseph's, Ávila.
The italicized lines which
follow, and are in the nature of a digression, do not appear in V., and in E. they have
been crossed out.
Here follow two erased lines
which are illegible but for the words "Thou didst honour the world". The exact
sense of the following words ("We can . . . in secret") is affected by these
illegible lines and must be considered uncertain.
those." P. Bez wrote in the margin "of the mansions" using the
word which is thus translated in the titles of the seven main divisions of the Interior
Castle. T. has: "of the houses."
Lit., "poor little
Lit.: "are seldom
ordered in such a way as."
"Other" is not in the
Spanish. "When they are only between", is the reading of T., which also omits:
"and become a pest."
Here begins the passage
reproduced in the Appendix to Chapter 4, below.
Lit.: "I beg her
who is in the position of a senior (mayor)." Mayor was the title given
to the superior at the Incarnation, Ávila, and many other convents in Spain, at that
Lit.: "There remains,
as people say, no patience"; but, as the phrase "as people say" (which E.
omits) suggests that this was a popular phrase, I have translated rather more freely and
picturesquely. T. has (after "ache too"): "and it upsets us, and so
Lit.: "My life!"
"My soul!" "My good!"
Lit.: de darnos todas a
l todo: "giving ourselves wholly to Him wholly."
The thirteenth was St. Teresa.
De sus tierras. The phrase
will also bear the interpretation: "from their own countries."
The sense of this passage,
especially without the phrase from E. which V. omits, is not very clear. T. remodels thus:
"You know there is no worse thief for the perfection of the soul than the love of
ourselves, for unless etc."
Here, in the margin, is written:
"Humility and mortification, very great virtues."
Lit.: "to contrive
not to die." But the reading of E. ("to think that we came to the convent for no
other reason than to serve our bodies and look after them") suggests that this is
what is meant.
Lit.: "which can be
suffered on foot."
Lit.: "to look at (or
to) what is needful" -- the phrase is ambiguous and might mean: "to worry about
their own needs." The word translated "people" is feminine.
Lit.: "Do you know
why, apart from other things?"
Lit.: "did them to
Lit.: "to this
college of Christ."
I.e., St. Joseph's, Ávila.
An untranslatable play upon
words: corto y no muy cortado -- as though "sharpened" could be used in
the sense of "refined".
Proverbs xxiv, 16.
The first four paragraphs of this
chapter originally formed part of V., but, after writing them, St. Teresa tore them out of
the manuscript, as though, on consideration, she had decided not to leave on record her
knowledge of such a worldly game as chess. The allegory, however, is so expressive and
beautiful that it has rightly become famous, and from the time of Fray Luis de Len
all the editions have included it. The text here followed is that of E.
Chess was very much in vogue in
the Spain of St. Teresa's day and it was only in 1561 that its great exponent Ruy
Lpez de Segura had published his celebrated treatise, in Spanish, entitled
"Book of the liberal invention and art of the game of chess".
Lit.: "the great
virtues." In V. St. Teresa originally began this sentence thus: "In the last
chapter I said that the King of glory, etc.," and ended it: "to gain the virtues
which I there described as great." Later she altered it to read as above.
Lit.: "out of his
hands", but the meaning, made more explicit in V., is evident. On the doctrinal
question involved in this paragraph, see Introduction, above. P. Silverio (III, 75-6), has
a more extensive note on the subject than can be given here and cites a number of Spanish
authorities, from P. Juan de Jess Mara (Theologia Mystica, Chap. III)
to P. Seisdedos Sanz (Principios fundamentales de la mstica, Madrid, 1913,
contrasting with "high" at the end of the sentence.
Acts x, 34.
St. Luke xiv, 10.
Lit.: "would give
them nothing", but the reference seems to be to payment.
Lit.: "very, very
certain" -- a typically Teresan repetition.
Lit.: "who is
Lit.: "so many
Lit.: "It will have to go as
it comes out."
St Teresa is probably referring
to the treatises of Luis de Granada and St. Peter of Alcntara (S.S.M, 1,
40-52, II, 106-20). Cf. Constitutions (Vol. III, p. 236, below).
Lit.: "of his doing
something on (the horse) which is not graceful."
St. John iv, 13.
Lit.: "But this one
-- no, no."
The author probably refers to
herself: Cf. Life, Chapter XX, and Relations, passim.
Lit.: "We eat it
Lit.: "to cut the
Presumably a reminiscence of
Romans vii, 24 or Philippians i, 23.
This, too, is generally taken as
referring to St. Teresa herself.
Cassian: Conferences, II.
E. ends the chapter here. This
final paragraph appears to be based upon St. John vii, 37.
There is a reference here to St.
John xiv, 2.
St. John vii, 37.
Lit.: "these are they
who are, etc."
Cuenta de perdones: a bead
larger in size than the remainder in the rosary and carrying special indulgences for the
souls in purgatory.
Lit.: "of beginning
so great a good."
Lit.: "save in
God" -- i.e., save as those whose life is centred in God: not necessarily, I think,
only of God.
"Do not be surprised,
daughters, for this is the royal road (camino real) to Heaven." A more
idiomatic translation of camino real would be "king's highway".
determination": this doubling of words is not uncommon in St. Teresa.
Lit.: "are such
V.: alguna consideracin:
the use of the singular form in a plural sense, with the shade of meaning which might be
conveyed by "some occasional thoughts," is common in Spanish. E. uses one of St.
Teresa's characteristic diminutives (see Vol. 1, p. xxi) alguna consideracioncita
-- "some (occasional) trifling thoughts."
This is generally taken as
referring to St. Teresa's visit to Doa Luisa de la Cerda in 1562.
Lit.: "to call her
'Honour." The point of this delightfully unaffected reminiscence, omitted in V. and
inserted here rather for its attractiveness than for its artistic appropriateness, is that
"Your Honour" (Vuestra Merced: now abbreviated to Vd. and used as the
third personal pronoun of ordinary polite address) was an expression merely of respect and
not of rank: the Saint often uses it, for example, in addressing her confessors. It was as
though a peer of the realm were to say "Just call me 'Sir."
For "fears" the
original has "things"; but that seems to be the meaning.
Lit.: "a thing".
Lit.: "a Beauty . . .
itself", as though referring to obras: "works."
Lit.: "Yes, approach
God, and, in approaching, try."
The words "think about our
Spouse" appear in no manuscript but were added by Luis de Len.
Este cuidadito: lit., "this
little attentiveness" -- another characteristic diminuitive.
Lit.: "a nothing at
all" (una nonada).
No es nada delicado mi Dios.
"Fastidious" might be nearer to the characteristically bold adjective of the
St. Luke xi, 9.
The word rendered
"discuss", both here and below, is a strong one, entrometerse, to
Lit.: "and that His
greatness is addressing her."
"Arabic" and hence "gibberish," "jargon."
A vague reminiscence of some
phrase from Canticles: perhaps ii, 14, 16, v, 2, or vi, 12.
Or "love Him". The verb
in the Spanish can have either meaning.
Lit.: "With what
Psalm xxxvi (A.V., xxxvii, 25).
Psalm xxxiii 20-1 (A.V., xxxiv,
Lit. "when they
deflect the soul in any way from going within itself."
Lit.: "once we
begin to be glad."
recollection within me."
"Hallowed be Thy name. Thy
The allusion is, of course, to
St. Luke ii, 25 ("just and devout"), 29.
Moradas. The "three
tabernacles" of St. Matthew xvii, 4.
In the margin of T. the author
adds, in her own hand, that this contemplative was St. Francis Borgia, Duke of
Ganda. No doubt, then, the other person referred to was St. Teresa herself. The
addition reads: "who was a religious of the Company of Jesus, who had been Duke of
Ganda," and to this are added some words, also in St. Teresa's hand, but
partially scored out and partially cut by the binder, which seem to be: "who knew it
well by experience."
St. Luke xviii, 13. St. Teresa
apparently forgot that the publican "would not so much as lift his eyes towards
Lit.: "and drawn
along with it"; the same phrase is found at the end of the preceding paragraph.
Lit. "let the milk
fall out of its mouth."
Algaraba. Cf. n.
Lit.: "neither the
one nor the other will gain."
"Thy will be done: as in
Heaven, so on earth."
"Give us this day our
Lit.: "should want
as much for himself as for his neighbour, and for his neighbour as for
himself." The italicized phrase is found in E. only.
Lit.: "each day,
This, as will be observed from
the title to this chapter, is the order of the words in the Latin.
service" -- en servidumbre, a strong word, better rendered, perhaps,
"servitude," and not far removed from "slavery."
The whole of this paragraph is
lightly crossed out in the manuscript.
Lit.: "as if by
(someone's) hand." St. Teresa is thought here to be referring to herself.
Lit.: "and have him
within itself with love."
The sense of the verb here
rendered "cause the loss of" is vague. Literally the phrase reads: "so many
priests are lost."
St. Matthew viii, 25.
"Forgive us our
"ill-treated." The same verb is used in the following sentence.
Honourer" -- Honrador nuestro: a rather unusual phrase which T. changes into
the quite conventional honrado Maestro -- "honoured Master."
St. Teresa left this sentence
uncompleted. Luis de Len added: "You need not . . . prayer" in his
edition, since when it has always been included. It figures as an anonymous correction in
Lit.: "He left it
thus confused." Here follows in E., in place of the rest of this paragraph, a passage
which interrupts the trend of the thought, and therefore, in the text above, is printed in
italics and in brackets at the end of this paragraph.
The words "though . . .
forgive" are crossed out in the manuscript, as is the following sentence "May He
. . . before Him."
"And lead us not into
temptation, but deliver us from evil."
as also in the next paragraph. E. has: "because they have hopes of becoming
rich." The reference in both manuscripts is, of course, to the spoils and booty of
It will be noticed that this
paragraph is similar to the last paragraph in the text of V. (p. 254, above). The
differences, however, are so wide that each of the two is given as it stands.
A marginal addition made, in
the autograph, to the title by another hand reads: "This chapter is very noteworthy,
both for those tempted by false kinds of humility and for confessors." This is found
in T. and in most of the editions.
Lit.: "these two
virtues, so great, so great."
Lit.: "to an inn
for ever, ever, for eternity." The repetition of "ever" (siempre)
reminds one of the famous reminiscence of St. Teresa's childhood, to be found in her Life,
Lit.: "the infernal
Or "for [if we do this] we
shall never reach our goal."
St. Luke xxii, 15.
Philippians iv, 13.
Lit.: "Let those
who are so."
The Life. I do not
know what reason St. Teresa had to suppose this, but the Spanish of E. ("tambin
os dar el otro") is quite definite.
Lit.: "you will
take my will, as I have obeyed your command with the work" [i.e. in deed].